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Alumni Hall of Fame 2003
Jack Goldberg was responsible for the early, innovative design of computer prototypes and software that led to the rigor and reliability of today’s computers. The computer sciences group he headed in 1966 would become SRI’s Computer Sciences Laboratory, which has achieved a worldwide reputation as one of the most noted labs in computer science.
Jack Goldberg arrived at SRI in 1951, in time to begin work on SRI’s first large project, ERMA. The challenge was to build a special computer for the Bank of America to handle all the usual banking functions, but focusing on the rapidly growing check-processing operations. Jack Goldberg’s major role in ERMA was logic design, a craft that was emerging along with the origin of computers themselves. Jack Goldberg, Bart Cox, and Bill Kautz were responsible for the logic design of the world’s first banking computer. Having struggled with this task, they realized that computer design lacked a scientific underpinning. Within the newly formed Computer Techniques Lab (CTL), Jack Goldberg and Bill Kautz concentrated on how best to use the unreliable parts, including early transistors, to design and build computers.
By 1969, Jack Goldberg was Manager of the Computer Sciences Group. Under his leadership, the group continued to focus on the question of fault tolerance: how to ensure that the computer would continue to function in the presence of failing parts. One solution was to embody in software the ability to recover from hardware failure. Although the group was blessed with a cadre of talent, Jack Goldberg continued to hire a splendid array of additional people lured by the new and inviting challenge of designing software such that its correctness could be proved mathematically. By 1976 the group had grown sufficiently to become the Computer Science Laboratory with Jack Goldberg as its Director. The reputation of the Lab grew to worldwide prominence and soon developed the world’s most advanced program verification system called HDM. CSL went on to look into the problem of computer security and the design of software languages themselves, including ADA.
The Computer Science laboratory is still one of the world’s most noted labs in computer science, continuing in the formal methods of software design and proof and in computer security systems. It continues to attract computer software and security specialists, who come from around the world to learn or to stay.
Marion Hill founded SRI’s highly successful program on the synthesis of explosive and energetic compounds and was director of the Chemistry Laboratory for 18 years. Both these groups are still enriching SRI both scientifically and financially. Marion Hill was recruited to SRI in 1960 by Tom Poulter, who was attracted by Marion Hill’s distinguished career at the Naval Ordinance Laboratory (NOL) where he was honored by NOL for developing new high energy fuels for Polaris missiles.
At SRI, Marion Hill organized a small synthesis group, initially to provide energetic materials for United Technology. During the following five years, his group of two expanded to a department of twelve, conducting basic and applied research on energetic materials for half a dozen federal agencies including NOL, ONR, AFOSR, and LLNL as well as Lockheed. Many of the programs were done under contracts lasting 10 to 15 years and resulted in major contributions to new propulsion and explosive systems used during the Cold War. The ONR program developed basic understanding of NF2 compounds; work for the AF Rocket Laboratory led to discovery of NF4+ and the LLNL-supported research on nitrofluoro alcohols provided novel compounds used for missile fuels.
Marion Hill’s legacy, the energetic materials program, continues in 2003 to contribute to national defense as well as to SRI’s reputation and financial health. The important work of Jeff Bottaro and coworkers in the discovery of new, safer explosives and propellants such ammonium dinitramide (ADN) has also led to commercial licenses to several companies around the world.
The Chemistry Laboratory was founded by Marion Hill in 1967 to integrate in one research organization many groups doing chemical research at SRI. Under his leadership, the laboratory grew to over 100 scientists, who were not just widely respected in the scientific community, but produced almost $20 million in net income on contracts worth about $70 million before Marion Hill retired in 1984. The Chemistry Laboratory is another of Marion Hill’s legacies, now represented by several laboratories in Physical Sciences that continue to contribute to SRI’s reputation for strong scientific achievement.
Earle Jones brought to SRI all the talents that could be hoped for in a researcher, a manager, and a promoter of SRI’s expertise. He was well respected for his technical innovation, for his vigor as a division leader, for his excellent rapport with top-level commercial clients, and for his ability to create a new stream of commercial revenue from international clients, especially in Asia. In all these roles, Earle Jones displayed a quality that can only be described as charm.
Earle Jones joined SRI in 1956. In the 1960s, he came up with a valuable invention for Monsanto. His idea was to build a frequency synthesizer, which Monsanto patented, made, and sold successfully. He and his group developed early copier and fax systems as an R&D arm of Savin Business Machines. Earle Jones also recognized early the benefits of spinning off SRI’s innovations. He was active in spin-off and subsidiary committees, and from 1983 to 1986, he took a leave of absence to work for Communication Intelligence Corporation (CIC), an early SRI spin-off that focused on linking handwriting and Chinese characters to the computer.
Earle Jones’s leadership skills led to his rapid rise into management. He had an impressive ability to work closely with his project managers and with top-level commercial clients who wanted new ideas and products explored, developed, and exploited as marketable capabilities. By 1977, he was Executive Director of the Information Science and Engineering Division, which evolved to become the Advance Development Division. This division, known for its excellent work and many patents for commercial clients, frequently formed interdisciplinary teams that worked with the business consulting parts of SRI.
Earle Jones was especially effective in international markets. In 1979, he started the Micro Electronics Technology Program in Europe and later represented SRI in the London Office. As Executive Director of SRI Asia in 1986-1987, he helped to expand project revenues from Japanese clients. In 1988, as Regional Marketing Director of Korea, Earle Jones opened an SRI office in Seoul. Here, he promoted SRI and started a new project revenue stream for both SRI and Sarnoff.
The talents of Earle Jones gave SRI a strong foundation in commercial projects that have gained the respect of both domestic and international clients for SRI’s ability to take an idea from concept, through exploration and development, to the marketplace
Peter Lim holds the records for the longest-running project in the history of SRI. His analytical chemistry project for the National Cancer Institute, started in 1956, is still going strong after almost 50 years.
After receiving his Ph.D. at the Berkeley campus of the University of California in 1956, Peter Lim joined Stanford Research Institute to work with B. R. Baker, who had just arrived from the Southern Research Institute to start a program for the synthesis of new potential anticancer agents sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). At that time, infrared (IR) spectroscopy was just emerging as an extremely useful technique for identifying structures of organic molecules. Peter Lim became an expert in the analysis of IR spectra and used that capability to analyze all the reaction products of new molecules generated by 12-15 organic chemists in SRI’s cancer group.
In about 1956, an organizational change occurred at NCI, and all analytical chemistry was spun off from the synthesis program and funded as a separate contract. Peter applied for and received this major NCI analytical project, which continues to this day under the leadership of senior chemists trained by Peter. This was the start of the analytical chemistry group in Life Sciences. Peter Lim served as the group’s leader, and in 1979, he became Director of the Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis in the Life Sciences Division. For over 25 years, he maintained a staff of 10 to 15 chemists at a sold time greater than 90%.
Other significant analytical programs brought to SRI under Peter’s leadership included a project from the Walter Reed Institute to analyze antimalarial compounds and a project from the U.S. Army for analyzing chemical defense agents. These projects also continue to this day. In addition, many short-term commercial projects were obtained as a result of Peter’s expertise and reputation for quality work.
Peter Lim’s legacy to SRI is his demonstration of the kind of excellent work that it takes to continue to satisfy the needs of a major client over many years—a talent crucial to the continued success of SRI.
Bill Royce is a truly dedicated SRI staff member, who for thirty years contributed both to important project substance and to the leadership of SRI’s marketing offices. He was a business economist with great insight into economic fundamentals and the value of solid, practical planning as well as a very congenial representative of SRI. His work continues to influence SRI programs and economies around the world.
Bill Royce came to SRI in 1954 as the head of a new office in Portland, Oregon. Within a year or so, he was engaged in the economic planning and site selection for the Kennedy Center in Washington, DC, and was traveling the country to assess the functions that had led to the financial success of existing venues like the Met and Carnegie Hall. The resulting SRI recommendation for a multi-unit facility influenced both the final design of the offerings of the Kennedy Center and its site at Watergate. In 1957 Bill Royce helped the Commission for Seattle Century 21 in its economic planning and site location. Seattle’s fair became the first financially successful world’s fair.
In mid-1959 Bill Royce replaced Ed Robison in the leadership of an important Ford Foundation project to help build up the business acumen of the middle class in post-independence India. There he managed the SRI-formed National Council for Applied Economic Research, which was the first agency to gather demographics in India and still exists today.
From there, Royce joined the Long Range Planning Service (LRPS), serving as its Director from 1965 to 1968. In 1971, he became the director of the Tokyo Office and in charge of SRI East Asia from South Korea to Hong Kong. He held that position until 1976. While there, he became a founding director of the Japan Society for Corporate Planning.
After that assignment, Bill Royce returned to project work in the Business Intelligence Program, where, with Arnold Mitchell, he helped promote, with reports and seminars in the United State and Europe, the earlier-developed SRI concept of business “stakeholders.” Following his retirement in 1984, Bill Royce helped in the formation and operation of the SRI Alumni Association.
Bill Royce’s legacies as an industrial economist and pragmatist can still be seen in the continued success of the Business Intelligence Program and the Tokyo Office at SRI and in his long-lasting influence on economic stability around the world.