Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for the same virus, such as HIV-1. However, viruses rely on host glycosylation machineries to synthesize and express glycans and, thereby, may display common carbohydrate moieties. Thus, exploring glycan-binding profiles of broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing agents may provide key information to uncover the carbohydrate-based virus-neutralizing epitopes. In this study, we characterized two broadly HIV-neutralizing agents, human monoclonal antibody 2G12 and Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA), for their viral targeting activities. Although these agents were known to be specific for oligomannosyl antigens, they differ strikingly in virus-binding activities. The former is HIV-1 specific; the latter is broadly reactive and is able to neutralize viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, such as HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In carbohydrate microarray analyses, we explored the molecular basis underlying the striking differences in the spectrum of anti-virus activities of the two probes. Unlike 2G12, which is strictly specific for the high-density Man9GlcNAc2Asn (Man9)-clusters, GNA recognizes a number of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties. These include not only the known oligomannosyl antigens but also previously unrecognized tri-antennary or multi-valent GlcNAc-terminating N-glycan epitopes (Tri/m-Gn). These findings highlight the potential of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties as conserved targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization and suggest the GNA-model of glycan-binding warrants focused investigation.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Toxicity, Toxicokinetics, and Toxicogenomics Analysis After 13 Weeks of Oral Administration in Mice
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a prodrug of tenofovir that exhibits activity against HIV and hepatitis B. The goals of this study were to evaluate the molecular mechanism of TDF-induced toxicity in mice after 13 weeks of daily oral administration (50-1000 mg/kg) by correlating transcriptional changes with plasma drug levels and traditional toxicology end points. Plasma levels and systemic exposure of tenofovir increased less than dose proportionally and were similar on days 1 and 91. No overt toxicity was observed following the completion of TDF administration. The kidneys of TDF-treated mice were histopathologically normal. This result is consistent with the genomic microarray results, which showed no significant differences in kidney transcriptional levels between TDF-treated animals and controls. In liver, after 4 and 13 weeks, cytomegaly was observed in mice treated with 1000 mg/kg of TDF, but mice recovered from this effect following cessation of administration. Analysis of liver transcripts on day 91 reported elevated levels of Cdkn1a in TDF-treated animals compared with controls, which may have contributed to the inhibition of liver cell cycle progression.
SRI Authors: Denong Wang