Khroyan, T. V., Polgar, W. E., Orduna, J., Zaveri, N. T., Judd, A. K., Tuttle, D. J., … & Toll, L. (2007). Anti-nociceptive and anti-allodynic effects of a high affinity NOP hexapeptide [Ac-RY (3-Cl) YRWR-NH2](Syn 1020) in rodents. European journal of pharmacology, 560(1), 29-35.
There has been a flurry of activity to develop agonists and antagonists for the member of the opioid receptor family, NOP receptor (also known as ORL1), in part to understand its role in pain. Modifications of a hexapeptide originally identified from a combinatorial library have led to the discovery of a high affinity hexapeptide agonist Ac-RY(3-Cl)YRWR-NH2 (Syn 1020). In the following experiments we characterized the anti-nociceptive effects of Syn 1020 in the tail-flick model of acute pain and the diabetic neuropathy model of chronic pain in mice and rats, respectively. Acute antinociception was assessed using the tail-flick assay in mice in which animals received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of Syn 1020 alone or with morphine and were tested for tail-flick latencies. In the chronic pain model, diabetic neuropathy was induced by injections of streptozotocin in rats. Tactile allodynia was measured, with von Frey hair filaments, following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of Syn 1020 or gabapentin (positive control). In mice, i.c.v. injections of Syn 1020 did not have any pro- or anti-nociceptive effects, however, Syn 1020 reversed morphine antinociception with a similar potency as N/OFQ (the natural ligand to NOP). S.c. injections of Syn 1020 in mice also produced analgesic effects. In rats, i.p, injections of Syn 1020 produced anti-allodynic effects. Thus, Syn 1020, a NOP receptor directed peptide, administered systemically has anti-nociceptive activity in both acute and chronic pain models in mice and rats respectively.
Keywords: NOP receptor Antinociception Nociception Analgesia Allodynia Nociceptin Thermal pain Mechanical pain