He, Y., Bergen, A. W., Hops, H., Andrews, J. A., Tildesley, E., Lessov‐Schlaggar, C. N., … & Swan, G. E. (2009). Genome‐wide linkage of cotinine pharmacokinetics suggests candidate regions on chromosomes 9 and 11. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 150(4), 554-559.
Characterizing cotinine pharmacokinetics is a useful way to study nicotine metabolism because the same liver enzyme is primarily responsible for the metabolism of both, and the clearances of nicotine and cotinine are highly correlated. We conducted a whole-genome linkage analysis to search for candidate regions influencing quantitative variation in cotinine pharmacokinetics in a large-scale pharmacokinetic study with 61 families containing 224 healthy adult participants. The strongest linkage signal was identified at 135 cM of chromosome 9 with LOD = 2.81 and P = 0.0002; two other suggestive linkage peaks appear at 31.4 and 73.5 cM of chromosome 11 with LOD = 1.96 (P = 0.0013) and 1.94 (P = 0.0014). The confidence level of the linkage between the three genome regions and cotinine pharmacokinetics is statistically significant with a genome-wide empirical probability of P = 0.029.