Anderson, D. C., Lapp, S. A., Akinyi, S., Meyer, E. V., Barnwell, J. W., Korir-Morrison, C., & Galinski, M. R. (2015). Plasmodium vivax trophozoite-stage proteomes. Journal of Proteomics, 115, 157-176. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2014.12.010
Plasmodium vivax is the causative infectious agent of 80-300 million annual cases of malaria. Many aspects of this parasite’s biology remain unknown. To further elucidate the interaction of P. vivax with its Saimiri boliviensis host, we obtained detailed proteomes of infected red blood cells, representing the trophozoite-enriched stage of development. Data from two of three biological replicate proteomes, emphasized here, were analyzed using five search engines, which enhanced identifications and resulted in the most comprehensive P. vivax proteomes to date, with 1375 P. vivax and 3209 S. boliviensis identified proteins. Ribosome subunit proteins were noted for both P. vivax and S. boliviensis, consistent with P. vivax’s known reticulocyte host-cell specificity. A majority of the host and pathogen proteins identified belong to specific functional categories, and several parasite gene families, while 33% of the P. vivax proteins have no reported function. Hemoglobin was significantly oxidized in both proteomes, and additional protein oxidation and nitration was detected in one of the two proteomes. Detailed analyses of these post-translational modifications are presented. The proteins identified here significantly expand the known P. vivax proteome and complexity of available host protein functionality underlying the host-parasite interactive biology, and reveal unsuspected oxidative modifications that may impact protein function.