Blum, Y. D., Marschall, J., Hui, D., Adair, B., & Vestel, M. (2008). Hafnium reactivity with boron and carbon sources under non‐self‐propagating high‐temperature synthesis conditions. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 91(5), 1481-1488.
The homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions of hafnium (Hf) with boron (B) or carbon (C) powders were studied under non-self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) conditions in searching for chemically aided processes of ultra-high-temperature ceramics at mild and practical conditions. The threshold interactions of the Hf/B and Hf/C powder mixtures consisting of relatively large Hf particles occur at 700° and 800°C, respectively, with no observation of particle melting as previously postulated for igniting SHS reactions. A microscale melting phenomenon at the Hf surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis in heterogeneous reactions between Hf metal strips and B or C powders at the temperature range of 1100°–1200°C, more than 1000°C below the incipient melting point of the metal. The non-SHS conditions allow halting the reactions at intermediate stages for analytical purposes. Kinetic studies of the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, heat transfer model analyses, and