Chao Zhang and Wenyi Zhao, “Scene-based nonuniformity correction using local constant statistics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1444-1453 (2008)
In scene-based non-uniformity correction, the statistical approach assumes all possible values of the true-scene pixel are seen at each pixel location. This global-constant-statistics assumption does not distinguish fixed pattern noise from spatial variations in the average image. This often causes the “ghosting” artifacts in the corrected images since the existing spatial variations are treated as noises. We introduce a new statistical method to reduce the ghosting artifacts. Our method proposes a local-constant statistics that assumes that the temporal signal distribution is not constant at each pixel but is locally true. This considers statistically a constant distribution in a local region around each pixel but uneven distribution in a larger scale. Under the assumption that the fixed pattern noise concentrates in a higher spatial-frequency domain than the distribution variation, we apply a wavelet method to the gain and offset image of the noise and separate out the pattern noise from the spatial variations in the temporal distribution of the scene. We compare the results to the global-constant-statistics method using a clean sequence with large artificial pattern noises. We also apply the method to a challenging CCD video sequence and a LWIR sequence to show how effective it is in reducing noise and the ghosting artifacts.