Kim, S., & Tamrakar, A. (2021, November). “How to best say it?”: Translating Directives in Machine Language into Natural Language in the Blocks World. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (pp. 289-293).
We propose a method to generate optimal natural language for block placement directives generated by a machine’s planner during human-agent interactions in the blocks world. A non user-friendly machine directive, e.g., move(ObjId, toPos), is transformed into visually and contextually grounded referring expressions that are much easier for the user to comprehend. We describe an algorithm that progressively and generatively transforms the machine’s directive in ECI (Elementary Composable Ideas)-space, generating many alternative versions of the directive. We then define a cost function to evaluate the ease of comprehension of these alternatives and select the best option. The parameters for this cost function were derived empirically from a user study that measured utterance-to-action timings.