Luca Carlone, Pablo Fernández Alcantarilla, Han-Pang Chiu, Zsolt Kira, Frank Dellaert: Mining Structure Fragments for Smart Bundle Adjustment. BMVC 2014
Bundle Adjustment (BA) can be seen as an inference process over a factor graph. From this perspective, the Schur complement trick can be interpreted as an ordering choice for elimination. The elimination of a single point in the BA graph induces a factor over the set of cameras observing that point. This factor has a very low information content (a point observation enforces a low-rank constraint on the cameras). In this work we show that, when using conjugate gradient solvers, there is a computational advantage in “grouping” factors corresponding to sets of points (fragments) that are co-visible by the same set of cameras. Intuitively, we collapse many factors with low information content into a single factor that imposes a high-rank constraint among the cameras. We provide a grounded way to group factors: the selection of points that are co-observed by the same camera patterns is a data mining problem, and standard tools for frequent pattern mining can be applied to reveal the structure of BA graphs. We demonstrate the computational advantage of grouping in large BA problems and we show that it enables a consistent reduction of BA time with respect to state-of-the-art solvers (Ceres).