Kassner, L. D. (2013). A review of literature: Mix it up with blended learning in K-12 schools. Richmond, VA: Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium.
The term “blended learning” represents a wide spectrum of delivery options, tools, and pedagogies, but conceptually refers to instruction that is a mix or blending of traditional face-to-face (f2f) and online components. Horn & Staker (2011) define blended learning as “any time a student learns at least in part at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home and at least in part through online delivery with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/ or pace” (p.3). Allen, Seaman, & GarreƩ (2007) further attempt to quantify the divide, defining it as “between 30-79% of content delivered online with remaining portions delivered by f2f or other non-web-based methods” (Watson, 2008). Lastly, Brew (2008) describes blended learning as “integrating online and f2f formats to create a more effective learning experience than either medium can produce alone.”