Developing Early Reading Profiles for Latinx Kindergarten Students Using Typical Universal Screeners


Aceves, T. C., Fritschmann, N. S., Grimm, R. P., & Garcia, A. (2021). Developing early reading profiles for Latino kindergarten students using typical universal screeners. Contemporary School Psychology, 25, 595-607.


The purpose of the current study was to determine students’ early reading profiles at the beginning and end of kindergarten using existing school-based measures with a sample of Spanish speaking, Latinx students. Using latent profile analysis, a multivariate analytic technique that empirically identifies profiles based on student responses to multiple measures, students’ performance was compiled using typical universal screening measures of reading, a formal measure of English language development, and information regarding referral for special education evaluation and grade retention. At the beginning of the year, students demonstrating greater English proficiency also had increased ability on initial sound fluency and letter naming fluency tasks in English. By the end of the year, students demonstrating continued deficits in early literacy skills (phoneme segmentation fluency, letter naming, and nonsense word fluency) included students referred for special education or grade level retention than students who demonstrated greater proficiency in these skill areas. Recommendations for research and school-based practices are provided.

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