Scarborough, A. A., Hebbeler, K. M., Spiker, D., & Simeonsson, R. J. (2007). Dimensions of behavior of toddlers entering early intervention: Child and family correlates. Infant Behavior and Development, 30 (3), 466-478.
This study examined the nature and correlates of the behavioral characteristics of a nationally representative sample of 1612 toddlers 18–31 months of age entering Part C early intervention services in the U.S.. Factor analysis of 15 items describing child behavior collected as part of an extensive telephone interview of parents yielded four dimensions of behavior: difficult behaviors, lack of persistence, distractible, and withdrawn. Demographic and personal characteristics of the child and family were found to be related to the four behavioral dimensions. Parent reports of behavior of toddlers with fair or poor health or those with communication difficulties were less positive for all behavioral dimensions, suggesting the development of toddler behavioral characteristics is influencing or being influenced by other facets of development.