Yu, Z. G., Ding, F., & Wang, H. (2013). Hyperfine interaction and its effects on spin dynamics in organic solids. Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), 87(20), 205446. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.205446
Hyperfine interaction (HFI) and spin-orbit coupling are two major sources that affect electron spin dynamics. Here we present a systematic study of the HFI and its role in organic spintronic applications. For electron spin dynamics in disordered π-conjugated organics, the HFI can be characterized by an effective magnetic field whose modular square is a weighted sum of contact and dipolar contributions. We determine the effective HFI fields of some common π-conjugated organics studied in the literature via first-principles calculations. Most of them are found to be less than 2 mT. While the H atoms are the major source of the HFI in organics containing only the C and H atoms, many organics contain other nuclear spins, such as Al and N in tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum, that contribute to the total HFI. Consequently, the deuteration effect on the HFI in the latter may be much weaker than in the former. The HFI gives rise to multiple resonance peaks in electron spin resonance. In disordered organic solids, these individual resonances are unresolved, leading to a broad peak whose width is proportional to the effective HFI field. As electrons hop among adjacent organic molecules, they experience a randomly varying local HFI field, inducing electron spin relaxation and diffusion. This is analyzed rigorously based on master equations. Electron spin relaxation undergoes a crossover along the ratio between the electron hopping rate ¯η and the Larmor frequency Ω of the HFI field. The spin relaxation rate increases (decreases) with ¯η when ¯η≪Ω (¯η≫Ω). A coherent beating of electron spin at Ω is possible when the external field is small compared to the HFI. In this regime, the magnetic field is found to enhance the spin relaxation.