Schank, P., Linn, M., & Clancy, M. (1993). Supporting Pascal programming with an on-line template library and case studies. Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 38, 1031-1048.
We propose a template library as a good representation of programming knowledge, and programming case studies as part of an effective context for illustrating design skills and strategies for utilizing this knowledge. In this project, we devised an on-line network of Pascal programming templates called a template library, and tested it with subjects (classified as novice, intermediate, and expert Pascal programmers) both as a stand alone resource and in conjunction with programming case studies. We investigated three questions using these tools: 1) How do subjects organize templates? 2) How well can subjects understand and locate templates in the template library? 3) Does the template library help subjects reuse templates to solve new problems? Results suggest that the template representations helped subjects remember and reuse information, and that subjects gained deeper understandings if the representation was introduced in the context of a programming case study.