What Tools Have States Developed or Adapted to Assess Schools’ Implementation of a Multi-Tiered System of Supports/Response to Intervention Framework?

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Schiller, E., Chow, K., Thayer, S., Nakamura, J., Wilkerson, S. B., & Puma, M. (2020). What tools have states developed or adapted to assess schools’ implementation of a multi-tiered system of supports/response to intervention frame-work? (REL 2020–017). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia.


Most states are using a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) or response to intervention (RTI) framework for improving the quality of instruction for all students and addressing the needs of students at risk for poor learning outcomes. Supporting educators in using tools to calibrate their MTSS/RTI implementation to the state’s expected practices is one way states can help districts and schools acquire and use data to improve MTSS/RTI implementation. This report describes the features of 31 tools that 21 states developed or adapted to assess key MTSS/RTI practices that are informed by the research literature. Most tools assessed broad practices for implementing MTSS/RTI, such as whether schools administer assessments for students in need of intervention. Fewer tools assessed more specific practices for implementing MTSS/RTI, such as whether schools are expected to administer universal screening twice a year with all students. The findings can serve as a resource for state education officials who are interested in selecting or adapting a tool to assess MTSS/RTI implementation and in learning how other states support districts and schools in using these tools.

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