Mark A. Itzler, Mark Entwistle, Mark Owens, Xudong Jiang, Ketan M. Patel, Krystyna Slomkowski, Tim Koch, Sabbir Rangwala, Peter F. Zalud, Young Yu, John Tower, and Joseph Ferraro “InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays for three-dimensional imaging at 1.06 μm”, Proc. SPIE 7320, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III, 73200O (29 April 2009); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.820564
We report on the development of 32 x 32 focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InGaAsP/InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) designed for use in three-dimensional (3-D) laser radar imaging systems at 1064 nm. To our knowledge, this is the first realization of FPAs for 3-D imaging that employ a planar-passivated buried-junction InP-based GmAPD device platform. This development also included the design and fabrication of custom readout integrate circuits (ROICs) to perform avalanche detection and time-of-flight measurements on a per-pixel basis. We demonstrate photodiode arrays (PDAs) with a very narrow breakdown voltage distribution width of 0.34 V, corresponding to a breakdown voltage total variation of less than +/- 0.2%. At an excess bias voltage of 3.3 V, which provides 40% pixel-level single photon detection efficiency, we achieve average dark count rates of 2 kHz at an operating temperature of 248 K. We present the characterization of optical crosstalk induced by hot carrier luminescence during avalanche events, where we show that the worst-case crosstalk probability per pixel, which occurs for nearest neighbors, has a value of less than 1.6% and exhibits anisotropy due to isolation trench etch geometry. To demonstrate the FPA response to optical density variations, we show a simple image of a broadened optical beam.