Kelley, M. C., Rodrigues, F. S., Makela, J. J., Tsunoda, R., Roddy, P. A., Hunton, D. E., … & Ilma, R. R. (2009). C/NOFS and radar observations during a convective ionospheric storm event over South America. Geophysical research letters, 36(18).
The development of a convective ionospheric storm is studied using three radars, the C/NOFS satellite, airglow instrumentation, and a numerical model. First detected in the form of convective plumes over the Eastern Pacific, plasma irregularities, airglow signatures, plumes, and irregularities were also detected over Brazil and then Peru. Dynamo conditions were such that a modest prereversal enhancement was recorded at both Christmas Island and Peru and probably over Brazil as well. No prereversal enhancement occurred during the next two days and no plumes were detected. The numerical model reproduced the results quite well over Peru. Evidence for seeding by both gravity waves and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is presented.