Cardenas-Valencia, A. M., Short, R. T., Adornato, L., & Langebrake, L. (2010). Recent developments of semi-fuel cells for powering underwater sensors and platforms. ECS Transactions, 26(1), 417.
This paper studies two novel galvanic cells and postulates their use in underwater power applications. One couples Aluminum to sodium peroxide (Al-Na2O2) and the other to a chlorinated halamine (Al-C3N3Cl3O3). Experimental results show that the chemistries are indeed capable of providing good specific energies. The results from small cells showed an specific energy (SE) of 200 Wh/kg, (~ 300 Wh/kg, if the packaging is not considered) for the Al-halamine cell. The SE of Al-alkali perox¬ide was found to be approximately 230 Wh/kg (460 Wh/kg, considering only active materials). Interestingly, latest results indicate that it is possible to increase the current of a given cell by using high surface area electrodes. Results using high surface area, porous, foam-like materials are estimated and show promising results their use in semi-fuel cell schemes (SE on the order of 0.5 kWh/Kg).