Kelley, M. C., Ilma, R. R., Nicolls, M., Erickson, P., Goncharenko, L., Chau, J. L., … & Kozyra, J. U. (2010). Spectacular low-and mid-latitude electrical fields and neutral winds during a superstorm. Journal of atmospheric and solar-terrestrial physics, 72(4), 285-291.
In November 2004, a major magnetic storm occurred, a lengthy portion of which was recorded by the Upper Atmospheric Radar Chain. On the 9th and 10th, the Jicamarca Radar detected the highest magnitude penetrating electric fields (±3 mV/m) and vertical drifts (±120 m/s) ever seen at this premiere facility. These large and variable drifts were highly correlated with the interplanetary magnetic and electric fields and created a double F layer on the dayside and unusual TEC behavior throughout the low-latitude zone. These solar wind-induced drifts both suppressed and generated irregularities at the magnetic equator at different times. Large-scale thermospheric disturbances were generated by high-latitude heating and tracked through the middle- to low-latitude zones where both parallel and perpendicular plasma drifts created major ionospheric changes. The auroral oval was located at a magnetic L shell of about three for many hours.