H. H. King et al., “Plugfest 2009: Global interoperability in Telerobotics and telemedicine,” 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2010, pp. 1733-1738, doi: 10.1109/ROBOT.2010.5509422.
Despite the great diversity of teleoperator designs and applications, their underlying control systems have many similarities. These similarities can be exploited to enable inter-operability between heterogeneous systems. We have developed a network data specification, the Interoperable Telerobotics Protocol, that can be used for Internet based control of a wide range of teleoperators. In this work we test interoperable telerobotics on the global Internet, focusing on the telesurgery application domain. Fourteen globally dispersed telerobotic master and slave systems were connected in thirty trials in one twenty four hour period. Users performed common manipulation tasks to demonstrate effective master-slave operation. With twenty eight (93%) successful, unique connections the results show a high potential for standardizing telerobotic operation. Furthermore, new paradigms for telesurgical operation and training are presented, including a networked surgery trainer and upper-limb exoskeleton control of micro-manipulators.
Keywords: Telerobotics, Telemedicine, Teleoperators, Master-slave, Control systems, Protocols, IP networks, Testing, Internet, Surgery