Appelt, D. E., & Kronfeld, A. (1987, August). A computational model of referring. In IJCAI (Vol. 87, pp. 640-647).
In this paper we present a theory of referring. This theory is presented within the framework of a general theory of speech acts and rationality advanced by Cohen and Levesque. Understanding a speech act involves two tasks on the part of the hearer: recognition of the literal goal, and recognition and satisfaction of identification constraints. We present a theory in which it is possible to demonstrate that, if a referring expression is uttered under appropriate circumstances, the literal goal is achieved. Furthermore, the same theory can account for the fact that referring expressions can be used under other circumstances to inform and make requests. This theory has application to the design of a natural-language utterance planning system that formulates utterances to achieve its goals.