Snow, E. B., Rutstein, D. W., Bienkowskie, M., & Xu, Y. (2017). Principled assessment of student learning in high school computer science. In proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on International Computing Education Research (pp. 209-216).
In the US, the new K12 CS Framework and aligned CSTA standards, and the Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards all include guidance related to computational thinking practices.
This reflects an orientation toward not just an internal, individual “thinking” but “ways of being and doing” that students should demonstrate when learning and exhibiting computer science knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
It represents the application of CS content knowledge via problem solving and inquiry-based methods.