Cohen, P. R. (1991). Integrated interfaces for decision-support with simulation. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
A major limitation of graphical user interfaces for simulation is that users such as managers and decision makers need to know too much. We examine the weaknesses inherent in graphical user interfaces to support these users of simulation for short-term situation assessment and scenario evaluation, a style of problem solving characteristic of military and factory command-and-control. Then, we present Shoptalk, a factory command-and-control system with an interface integrating direct manipulation and natural-language processing and demonstrate how the Shoptalk style of interaction can overcome these limitations.