H. A. Murthy, F. Beaufays, L. P. Heck and M. Weintraub, “Robust text-independent speaker identification over telephone channels,” in IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 554-568, Sept. 1999, doi: 10.1109/89.784108.
This paper addresses the issue of closed-set text-independent speaker identification from samples of speech recorded over the telephone. It focuses on the effects of acoustic mismatches between training and testing data, and concentrates on two approaches: extracting features that are robust against channel variations, and transforming the speaker models to compensate for channel effects.
First, an experimental study shows that optimizing the front end processing of the speech signal can significantly improve speaker recognition performance. A new filterbank design is introduced to improve the robustness of the speech spectrum computation in the front-end unit. Next, a new feature based on spectral slopes is described. Its ability to discriminate between speakers is shown to be superior to that of the traditional cepstrum. This feature can be used alone or combined with the cepstrum.
The second part of the paper presents two model transformation methods that further reduce channel effects. These methods make use of a locally collected stereo database to estimate a speaker-independent variance transformation for each speech feature used by the classifier. The transformations constructed on this stereo database can then be applied to speaker models derived from other databases. Combined, the methods developed in this paper resulted in a 38% relative improvement on the closed-set 30-second training 5-second testing condition of the NIST’95 Evaluation task, after cepstral mean removal.