Zadeh, L. A. (1982). Test-score semantics for natural languages. In Coling 1982: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics.
In a sharp departure from conventional approaches to the problem of meaning representation in natural languages, test-score semantics is based on the premise that almost everything that relates to natural language is a matter of degree. Thus, in test-score semantics, predicates, propositions and other types of linguistic entities are treated as collections of elastic constraints on a set of objects or relations in a universe of discourse.