The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes

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Caspi, R., Billington, R., Fulcher, C.A., Keseler, I.M., Kothari, A., Krummenacker, M., Latendresse, M., Midford, P.E., Ong, Q., Ong, W.K., Paley, S., Subhraveti, P., & Karp, P.D. (2018). The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes. Nucleic Acids Research. Vol. 46(D1):D633–D639. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkx935


MetaCyc ( is a comprehensive reference database of metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. It contains more than 2570 pathways derived from >54 000 publications, making it the largest curated collection of metabolic pathways. The data in MetaCyc is strictly evidence-based and richly curated, resulting in an encyclopedic reference tool for metabolism. MetaCyc is also used as a knowledge base for generating thousands of organism-specific Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs), which are available in the BioCyc ( and other PGDB collections. This article provides an update on the developments in MetaCyc during the past two years, including the expansion of data and addition of new features.

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