Lessov-Schlaggar, C. N., Pergadia, M. L., Khroyan, T. V., & Swan, G. E. (2008). Genetics of nicotine dependence and pharmacotherapy. Biochemical pharmacology, 75(1), 178-195.
Nicotine dependence is substantially heritable. Several regions across the genome have been implicated in containing genes that confer liability to nicotine dependence and variation in individual genes has been associated with nicotine dependence. Smoking cessation measures are also heritable, and measured genetic variation is associated with nicotine dependence treatment efficacy. Despite significant strides in the understanding of the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to nicotine dependence and treatment, emergent challenges necessitate interdisciplinary coordinated effort for effective problem solving. These challenges include refinement of the nicotine dependence phenotype, better understanding of the dynamic interplay between genes and environment in nicotine dependence etiology, application and development of molecular and statistical methodology that can adequately address vast amounts of data, and continuous translational cross-talk.
Keywords: Phenotype refinement, Genes, Environment, Comorbidity, Pharmacogenetics, Transdisciplinary