Gu, F., Wacholder, S., Kovalchik, S., Panagiotou, O. A., Reyes-Guzman, C., Freedman, N. D., . . . Caporaso, N. E. (2014). Time to smoke first morning cigarette and lung cancer in a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 106(6), dju118. doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju118
Background Targeting smokers at higher lung cancer risk can improve efficiency and reduce false-positive detection in lung cancer screening. We evaluated whether time to first cigarette after waking (TTFC), a single-item measure of nicotine dependency, could improve stratification of lung cancer risk beyond standard smoking metrics (intensity, duration, and pack-years).