Siddiquie,B.,Khan, S., Divakaran, A, & Sawhney, H., (August 2013). “Affect analysis in natural human interaction using joint hidden conditional random fields,” IEEE Workshop on ICME,
We present a novel approach for multi-modal affect analysis in human interactions that is capable of integrating data from multiple modalities while also taking into account temporal dynamics. Our fusion approach, Joint Hidden Conditional Random Fields (JHRCFs), combines the advantages of purely feature level (early fusion) fusion approaches with late fusion (CRFs on individual modalities) to simultaneously learn the correlations between features from multiple modalities as well as their temporal dynamics. Our approach addresses major shortcomings of other fusion approaches such as the domination of other modalities by a single modality with early fusion and the loss of cross-modal information with late fusion. Extensive results on the AVEC 2011 dataset show that we outperform the state-of-the-art on the Audio Sub-Challenge, while achieving competitive performance on the Video Sub-Challenge and the Audiovisual Sub-Challenge.