Blumenfeld, P., Marx, R. W., & Harris, C. J. (2006). Learning environments. In W. Damon, R. M. Lerner, K. A. Renninger & I. E. Sigel (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice (6th ed., Vol. 4, pp. 297-342). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Interest in the development and study of learning environments has increased as theory considers how contexts influence individual learning. Descriptions of school-based environments illustrate the range, similarities, and differences in emphases and instantiation of features, as well as their interdependence based on a scheme for characterizing learning environments. The features delineate types of goals, how tasks and technology are designed to achieve them, how learning is assessed, and the various roles that teachers, students and communities play. We demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice during the cycle of design, implementation and evaluation of environments, and show how both are enriched as a result. Debates about methods used to determine the effectiveness of learning environments are reviewed and problems of scaling that influence effectiveness are discussed. Conclusions focus on considerations for researchers, designers, and policy […]