Kwakkel, J. H., Carley, S., Chase, J., & Cunningham, S. W. (2014). Visualizing geo-spatial data in science, technology and innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 81, 67-81.
This paper provides a range of alternatives for analysts when dealing with geo-spatial data addressing activities in science, technology and innovation. There are two sets of theory which frame the debate concerning science, technology and innovation, and which drive further methodological advancements. The power of a good visualization in providing insight to decision-makers is well known. Visualizations complete a full cycle of decision-making involving analysis, design, action and then further monitoring. We advance the paper by assessing available geographic information in science and technology databases. The paper then systematically outlines current best practices and alternatives for visualizing geographic data. Different geographic map options provide different possibilities for the display of data. We show some of these options in the paper. Future research is needed into both the available tools and techniques, as well as a more in depth specification of the kinds of decision support needs that exist and have a geo-spatial component.