Uszkoreit, H. (1986). Constraints on order.
Partially free word order as it occurs in German and probably to some extent in all natural languages arises through the interaction of potentially conflicting ordering principles. A modified linear precedence (LP) component of Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) is proposed that accommodates partially free word order. In the revised framework, LP rules are sets of LP clauses. In a case in which these clauses make conflicting ordering predictions, more than one order is grammatical. LP clauses may refer to different types of categorial information such as category features, morphological case, thematic roles, discourse roles, and phonological information. The modified framework is applied to examples from German. It is demonstrated how the new LP component constrains the linear ordering of major nominal categories.