The assessment of cardiac toxicity is a major challenge in both drug development and clinical trials, and numerous marketed pharmaceuticals have been removed from the market due to unpredicted cardiac effects. Serum troponins are widely used indicators of cardiac injury; however, they are short-lived and have not been validated in preclinical animal models. In this study, we have used filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling to investigate serum protein alterations in isoproterenol-treated African green monkeys. Our results showed that the combination of FASP and TMT labeling provided highly reproducible and efficient sample preparation, which enables us to identify and quantify serum proteins with high confidence. We focused on the proteins that exhibit long-term alteration upon isoproterenol injection and discovered nine proteins exhibiting significant changes at 48 and 72 h postdosing. We further chose three proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA), frutose biphosphate aldolase A (FBAA), and fetuin A, for validation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum concentration of SAA showed a ∼ 50 fold increase, while concentration of FBAA and fetuin A exhibited a significant decrease accompanying isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity. This work provides valuable insights for multimarker evaluation of long-term cardiac injury.
During the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Western Africa (2013‒2016), antimalarial treatment was administered to EVD patients due to the high coexisting malaria burden in accordance with World Health Organization guidelines. In an Ebola treatment center in Liberia, EVD patients receiving the combination antimalarial artesunate-amodiaquine had a lower risk of death compared to those treated with artemether-lumefantrine. As artemether and artesunate are derivatives of artemisinin, the beneficial anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) effect observed could possibly be attributed to the change from lumefantrine to amodiaquine. Amodiaquine is a widely used antimalarial in the countries that experience outbreaks of EVD and, therefore, holds promise as an approved drug that could be repurposed for treating EBOV infections. We investigated the potential anti-EBOV effect of amodiaquine in a well-characterized nonhuman primate model of EVD. Using a similar 3-day antimalarial dosing strategy as for human patients, plasma concentrations of amodiaquine in healthy animals were similar to those found in humans. However, the treatment regimen did not result in a survival benefit or decrease of disease signs in EBOV-infected animals. While amodiaquine on its own failed to demonstrate efficacy, we cannot exclude potential therapeutic value of amodiaquine when used in combination with artesunate or another antiviral.
Increased stress associated with head-out plethysmography testing can exacerbate respiratory effects and lead to mortality in rats
Introduction: DSM421, a dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor, was in preclinical development as a potential treatment option for malaria. When tested in a core battery of safety pharmacology assays, DSM421 did not produce any effects at oral doses up to 750 mg/kg in an Irwin test in rats, but a respiratory study in rats using head-out plethysmography resulted in substantial changes in respiratory function as well as moribundity and mortality at that and lower doses. An investigation was performed to determine the source of this discrepancy.
Methods: Potential testing errors, differences in types of plethysmography testing chambers, effects on stress indicators, and off-target activity were investigated.
Results: Respiratory changes and toxicity (resulting in euthanasia in extremis) were confirmed in a repeat, head-out plethysmography test, but the effects of DSM421 were much less severe overall when the rats were tested in whole-body chambers. Additionally, at the end of the 5-h post-dosing respiratory monitoring periods, levels of stress-related hormones (particularly corticosterone) were higher overall in the head-out, than in the whole-body, tested rats. Furthermore, DSM421 was found to produce changes in cardiovascular function in unrestrained rats, and it was shown to have off-target binding affinity at the adenosine A 3 receptor (which is associated with bronchoconstriction).
Discussion: The generalized stress inherent to head-out plethysmography testing exacerbated the respiratory effects of DSM421 and was possibly compounded by DSM421’s cardiovascular effects, thus artifactually resulting in moribundity and mortality in rats. Care should be taken when choosing whether to use head-out versus whole-body plethysmography chambers during respiratory function testing in animals.
Keywords: Adenosine A(3) receptor; Cardiovascular; DSM421; Methods; Plethysmography; Rat; Respiratory; Restraint; Safety pharmacology; Stress.
Structure-based lead optimization to improve antiviral potency and ADMET properties of phenyl-1H-pyrrole-carboxamide entry inhibitors targeted to HIV-1 gp120
We are continuing our concerted effort to optimize our first lead entry antagonist, NBD-11021, which targets the Phe43 cavity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, to improve antiviral potency and ADMET properties. In this report, we present a structure-based approach that helped us to generate working hypotheses to modify further a recently reported advanced lead entry antagonist, NBD-14107, which showed significant improvement in antiviral potency when tested in a single-cycle assay against a large panel of Env-pseudotyped viruses. We report here the synthesis of twenty-nine new compounds and evaluation of their antiviral activity in a single-cycle and multi-cycle assay to derive a comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR). We have selected three inhibitors with the high selectivity index for testing against a large panel of 55 Env-pseudotyped viruses representing a diverse set of clinical isolates of different subtypes. The antiviral activity of one of these potent inhibitors, 55 (NBD-14189), against some clinical isolates was as low as 63 nM. We determined the sensitivity of CD4-binding site mutated-pseudoviruses to these inhibitors to confirm that they target HIV-1 gp120. Furthermore, we assessed their ADMET properties and compared them to the clinical candidate attachment inhibitor, BMS-626529. The ADMET data indicate that some of these new inhibitors have comparable ADMET properties to BMS-626529 and can be optimized further to potential clinical candidates.
Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Linezolid toxicity in patients correlates with the dose and duration of therapy. These toxicities are attributable to the inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Clinically relevant linezolid regimens were simulated in the in vitro hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) system to identify the linezolid therapies that minimize toxicity, maximize antibacterial activity, and prevent drug resistance. Linezolid inhibited mitochondrial proteins in an exposure-dependent manner, with toxicity being driven by trough concentrations. Once-daily linezolid killed M. tuberculosis in an exposure-dependent manner. Further, 300 mg linezolid given every 12 hours generated more bacterial kill but more toxicity than 600 mg linezolid given once daily. None of the regimens prevented linezolid resistance. These findings show that with linezolid monotherapy, a clear tradeoff exists between antibacterial activity and toxicity. By identifying the pharmacokinetic parameters linked with toxicity and antibacterial activity, these data can provide guidance for clinical trials evaluating linezolid in multidrug antituberculosis regimens.
Importance : The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis are a major threat to global public health. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone that is licensed for human use and has demonstrated potent activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. However, long-term use of linezolid has shown to be toxic in patients, often resulting in thrombocytopenia. We examined therapeutic linezolid regimens in an in vitro model to characterize the exposure-toxicity relationship. The antibacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was also assessed for these regimens, including the amplification or suppression of resistant mutant subpopulations by the chosen regimen. Higher exposures of linezolid resulted in greater antibacterial activity, but with more toxicity and, for some regimens, increased resistant mutant subpopulation amplification, illustrating the trade-off between activity and toxicity. These findings can provide valuable insight for designing optimal dosage regimens for linezolid that are part of the long combination courses used to treat multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis.
Preclinical Studies on the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Toxicology of Oxfendazole: Toward First in Human Studies
A 2-week study in rats identified target organs of oxfendazole toxicity to be bone marrow, epididymis, liver, spleen, testis, and thymus. Female rats had greater oxfendazole exposure and exhibited toxicities at lower doses than did males. Decreased white blood cell levels, a class effect of benzimidazole anthelmintics, returned to normal during the recovery period. The no observed adverse effect level was determined to be >5 but <25 mg/kg/d and the maximum tolerated dose 100 mg/kg/d. The highest dose, 200 mg/kg/d, resulted in significant toxicity and mortality, leading to euthanization of the main study animals in this group after 7 days. Oxfendazole did not exhibit genetic toxicology signals in standard Ames bacterial, mouse lymphoma, or rat micronucleus assays nor did it provoke safety concerns when evaluated for behavioral effects in rats or cardiovascular safety effects in dogs. These results support the transition of oxfendazole to First in Human safety studies preliminary to its evaluation in human helminth diseases
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Toxicity, Toxicokinetics, and Toxicogenomics Analysis After 13 Weeks of Oral Administration in Mice
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a prodrug of tenofovir that exhibits activity against HIV and hepatitis B. The goals of this study were to evaluate the molecular mechanism of TDF-induced toxicity in mice after 13 weeks of daily oral administration (50-1000 mg/kg) by correlating transcriptional changes with plasma drug levels and traditional toxicology end points. Plasma levels and systemic exposure of tenofovir increased less than dose proportionally and were similar on days 1 and 91. No overt toxicity was observed following the completion of TDF administration. The kidneys of TDF-treated mice were histopathologically normal. This result is consistent with the genomic microarray results, which showed no significant differences in kidney transcriptional levels between TDF-treated animals and controls. In liver, after 4 and 13 weeks, cytomegaly was observed in mice treated with 1000 mg/kg of TDF, but mice recovered from this effect following cessation of administration. Analysis of liver transcripts on day 91 reported elevated levels of Cdkn1a in TDF-treated animals compared with controls, which may have contributed to the inhibition of liver cell cycle progression.
When I describe to friends and colleagues what I do for a living, I typically get a response like, “So, you are really no different than a pharmaceutical company.” Exactly. And not at all. SRI International has played a major role in the development of therapeutics for a wide range of diseases over the years […]