This infographic summarizes key findings on children ages 3 through 5 years with disabilities in subsidized early learning and care in California. The data are from the Child Development Management Information System (CDMIS) from 2015 to 2019. Included in the analyses are children who participated in the California State Preschool Program, Alternative Payment, California State Preschool Full Day, California State Preschool Part Day, CalWORKS Stage 2, CalWORKS Stage 3, Family Child Care Home, General Child Care, General Migrant Care, Migrant Alternative Payment, and Severely Handicapped.
Data Snapshot 2: Preschoolers Receiving Special Education: California and National Data (School Years 2011-12 to 2019-20)
This infographic summarizes key findings on where children ages 3 through 5 years with disabilities in California received their received special education services. The data are from the California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System (CALPADS) from school years 2011–12 to 2019–20.
SRI has partnered with the California Department of Education in a study funded through a CCPRP grant to identify strategies for increasing facilitators and decreasing barriers to the inclusion of preschoolers with disabilities in subsidized child care.
The Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center used a rigorous 2-year collaborative process to develop, test, and revise a conceptual framework for high-quality state early intervention (EI) and early childhood special education (ECSE) systems. The framework identifies six critical components of a state system and what constitutes quality in each component. This new conceptual framework addresses the critical need to articulate what constitutes quality in state EI and ECSE systems. The framework and companion self-assessment are designed for state leaders to use in their efforts to evaluate and improve state systems to implement more effective services for infants and young children with disabilities and their families. This article describes the contents of the framework and the processes used to ensure that the framework incorporated current research, was relevant to all states, and was useful for systems improvement.
What do we know about young children with delays and disabilities, and how can we help them succeed in prekindergarten through third grade?
To begin with, Kathleen Hebbeler and Donna Spiker write, identifying children with delays and disabilities to receive specialized services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act poses several challenges. First, even though eligibility is based on 14 disability categories listed in the law, each state determines its own criteria for those conditions. Second, young children—especially those with disabilities—are hard to assess. Third, deciding where to draw the line for eligibility along a continuum of functioning is a matter of policy rather than science. In recent decades, the authors note, the concept of disability has been moving away from a medical model that sees disability as an impairment that resides in the child and toward a framework that emphasizes children’s functioning and interaction with their environments.
The authors review effective ways to support development and learning among young children with disabilities, including language and social skills interventions, preschool curricula, instructional and other practices, and multi-tiered systems of support. Then they examine a critical policy issue: the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular education classrooms. One critical finding is that high-quality instruction in general education classrooms is a major factor in good educational outcomes for children with disabilities, and for their successful inclusion from preschool to third grade. Moreover, improving the quality of general education benefits all children, not just those with disabilities.
Hebbeler and Spiker also examine what we know about the transitions young children with disabilities make from one setting to another—for example, from prekindergarten to kindergarten. Here they conclude that we need far more research if we’re to understand what makes such transitions successful.
This brief describes findings from the ENHANCE study that sought to answer the question of whether the Child Outcomes Summary (COS) process produces valid ratings for measuring the child outcomes achieved through early intervention (EI) and early childhood special education (ECSE) programs.
Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) are at risk for school failure when their health needs are not met. Current studies have identified a strong connection between school success and health. This study attempted to determine (a) how schools meet the direct service health needs of children and (b) who provides those services. The study used the following two methods: (a) analysis of administrative data from the California Basic Educational Data System and (b) a cross-sectional online survey of 446 practicing California school nurses. Only 43% of California’s school districts employ school nurses. Unlicensed school personnel with a variety of unregulated training provide school health services. There is a lack of identification of CSHCN, and communication barriers impair the ability to deliver care. Study results indicate that California invests minimally in school health services.
This report presents the findings from a series of studies conducted to examine the validity of the child outcomes data produced through the Child Outcomes Summary (COS) process.
In administering the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) pursues a mission of
“improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21, by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts” (U.S. Department of Education, 2007, p. 13485). An important part of that pursuit is the Research to Practice Division’s technical assistance, model demonstration, and dissemination activities. This project brief summarizes the characteristics, implementation experiences, and outcomes achieved by one of OSEP’s investments in model demonstration activities—a cohort of three grantees that demonstrated various approaches to implementing early childhood language interventions that targeted children with significant language disorders or delays and who were eligible for early intervention services.