Bastide, M. F., Meissner, W. G., Picconi, B., Fasano, S., Fernagut, P. O., Feyder, M., . . . Bezard, E. (2015). Pathophysiology of L-dopa-induced motor and non-motor complications in Parkinson’s disease. Progress in Neurobiology, 132, 96-168. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2015.07.002
Involuntary movements, or dyskinesia, represent a debilitating complication of levodopa (L-dopa) therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD). L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) are ultimately experienced by the vast majority of patients. In addition, psychiatric conditions often manifested as compulsive behaviours, are emerging as a serious problem in the management of L-dopa therapy. The present review attempts to provide an overview of our current understanding of dyskinesia and other L-dopa-induced dysfunctions, a field that dramatically evolved in the past twenty years. In view of the extensive literature on LID, there appeared a critical need to re-frame the concepts, to highlight the most suitable models, to review the central nervous system (CNS) circuitry that may be involved, and to propose a pathophysiological framework was timely and necessary. An updated review to clarify our understanding of LID and other L-dopa-related side effects was therefore timely and necessary. This review should help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing the generation of dyskinetic symptoms.