Trinh, N.H., Kimia, B.B. Skeleton Search: Category-Specific Object Recognition and Segmentation Using a Skeletal Shape Model. Int J Comput Vis 94, 215–240 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11263-010-0412-0
We describe a top-down object detection and segmentation approach that uses a skeleton-based shape model and that works directly on real images. The approach is based on three components. First, we propose a fragment-based generative model for shape that is based on the shock graph and has minimal dependency among its shape fragments. The model is capable of generating a wide variation of shapes as instances of a given object category. Second, we develop a progressive selection mechanism to search among the generated shapes for the category instances that are present in the image. The search begins with a large pool of candidates identified by a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm and progressively reduces it in size by applying series of criteria, namely, local minimum criterion, extent of shape overlap, and thresholding of the objective function to select the final object candidates. Third, we propose the Partitioned Chamfer Matching (PCM) measure to capture the support of image edges for a hypothesized shape. This measure overcomes the shortcomings of the Oriented Chamfer Matching and is robust against spurious edges, missing edges, and accidental alignment between the image edges and the shape boundary contour. We have evaluated our approach on the ETHZ dataset and found it to perform well in both object detection and object segmentation tasks.