Russell, A. R., Valin, L. C., Bucsela, E. J., Wenig, M. O., & Cohen, R. C. (2010). Space-based constraints on spatial and temporal patterns of NO x emissions in California, 2005− 2008. Environmental science & technology, 44(9), 3608-3615.
We describe ground and space-based measurements of spatial and temporal variation of NO2 in four California metropolitan regions. The measurements of weekly cycles and trends over the years 2005−2008 observed both from the surface and from space are nearly identical to each other. Observed decreases in Los Angeles and the surrounding cities are 46% on weekends and 9%/year from 2005−2008. Similar decreases are observed in the San Francisco Bay area and in Sacramento. In the San Joaquin Valley cities of Fresno and Bakersfield weekend decreases are much smaller, only 27%, and the decreasing trend is only 4%/year. We describe evidence that the satellite observations provide a uniquely complete view of changes in spatial patterns over time. For example, we observe variations in the spatial pattern of weekday−weekend concentrations in the Los Angeles basin with much steeper weekend decreases at the eastern edge of the basin. We also observe that the spatial extent of high NO2 in the San Joaquin Valley has not receded as much as it has for other regions in the state. Analysis of these measurements is used to describe observational constraints on temporal trends in emission sources in the different regions.