E. Shriberg and A. Stolcke, “The case for automatic higher-level features in forensic speaker recognition,” in Proc. 9th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association 2008 (INTERSPEECH 2008), p. 1509.
Approaches from standard automatic speaker recognition, which rely on cepstral features, suffer the problem of lack of interpretability for forensic applications. But the growing practice of using “higher-level” features in automatic systems offers promise in this regard. We provide an overview of automatic higher-level systems and discuss potential advantages, as well as issues, for their use in the forensic context.