Fusco, J., Haavind, S, Remold, J., and Schank, P. (2011). Exploring differences in online professional development seminars with the community of inquiry framework. Educational Media International 48(3): 139-149.
Four sessions of two professional development seminars were offered to members of an organization. The seminars were voluntary, free of charge, and participants did not receive credit for their attendance. Participation rates and exit survey ratings for the four sessions varied. After the seminars, an analysis using the community of inquiry framework was conducted to better understand what occurred in the dialogue of the seminars to understand whether patterns of facilitator actions related to the amount of participation and exit survey ratings. The design of the seminars, the activities in the seminars, and the importance of the facilitator to plan and then help foster interaction in voluntary professional development seminars are discussed relative to the community of inquiry model.